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- The Wilderness of Dreams: Exploring the Religious Meanings of Dreams in Modern Western Culture!
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Visibility Others can see my Clipboard. The work of religious studies scholars can help us understand better how the "primitive" dream beliefs and practices of various religious traditions arise out of complex and highly-developed cultural systems. This enables us to see that many religious approaches to dreams are not the ignorant fancies of pre-scientific savages, but are in fact elaborate, insightful reflections on dream experience--reflections that may provide stimulating new idea to modern Westerners, if we stop assuming that "religion" is synonymous with "superstition".
For example, we find sophisticated discussions of dream interpretation in the Talmud, a collection of Jewish religious teachings compiled during the period from b. Lorand ; we discover intriguing phenomenological descriptions of dreaming experience in the Upanishads, the sacred Hindu texts that reach back to the seventh century b.
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O'Flaherty ; we learn of intricate measures for diagnosing and curing illnesses both physical and psychological practiced by tribal shamans among the Diegueno, a Native American people from what is now Southern California Toffelmeir and Luomala ; and we find careful, nuanced reflections on the prognostic potential of dream in the treatise On Dreams, written by Synesios, a Christian bishop of Ptolemais in the early fifth century a.
Lewis When we study and discuss such materials, we should avoid the temptation to do nothing but argue over whether they are "right" or "wrong", "advanced" or "primitive", "proto-Freudian" or "proto-Jungian. Still another value of religious studies for dream research involves our understanding of the spiritual dimensions of dreams now, in the secularized culture of the 20th century West.
Many dream researchers are deeply puzzled by the widespread popular interest in the religious nature of dreams, and are particularly skeptical towards the spiritual yearnings of the "dreamworker movement". But religious studies can offer important insights on this interest of modern Westerners in dreams and spirituality. Religious studies can help us see what distinctive spiritual concerns have been generated by secular Western culture, and can show us how phenomena like the surging interest in dreams represent legitimate efforts to address those concerns.
This capacity of religious studies can be demonstrated by considering the work of certain sociologists of religion e. In their view, the advance of modern Western culture has left vast numbers of people in a state of spiritual and psychological alienation.
The Wilderness of Dreams: Exploring the Religious Meanings of Dreams in Modern Western Culture
The rapid pace of technological change, the dominance of huge, impersonal institutions, and the bewildering complexity of modern society has left many individuals feeling adrift, isolated, and lacking and sense of meaning or purpose to their lives. In other cultures and in the pre-modern West it was the primary function of religion and myth to provide such meaning and purpose; but in modern secular society, traditional religions and myths have for various reasons lost much of their persuasive power. In such circumstances, many people are turning to other, non-traditional sources for religious guidance.
From this perspective, then, it makes complete sense that interest in dreams, and specifically in the spiritual dimensions of dreams, has become so strong in our culture. Dreams are vivid, vital, meaning-rich; they provide a direct experience with highly numinous energies. Dream often speak to our most troubling, conflict-filled concerns, and offer us guidance, inspiration, and hope.
In short, dreams are serving many of the same functions in our culture that formal religions have served in other cultures although there are also some serious potential costs to this "privatization" of religion--see Bulkley forthcoming for an extended discussion of this.
Indeed, it is interesting in this regard to compare out culture's current interest in dreams with the special role dreams play in non-Western cultures that have recently encountered the forces of Western modernity.
Why Study Dreams? A Religious Studies Perspective
Many anthropological studies focus on such "contact situations", where the indigenous cultures for example, Native American clans, Australian Aborigines, African tribespeople are losing their traditional religions in the face of Western scientific, economic, and political encroachment. A striking phenomenon found in many of these "contact situations" is an upsurge of religious dreaming: the native people, disoriented by the sudden changes in their traditional ways, turn to their dreams for religious guidance.
What often results is the development of new symbols, myths, rituals, and movements that help the people respond to the massive and frequently painful disruptions of their lives see Wallace , Tonkinson , Lanternari These anthropological studies suggest an intriguing possibility: some modern Westerners may themselves be experiencing a kind of "contact situation".
The fact that many people feel deeply alienated by our culture, and that many of them have turned to dreams for religious guidance, certainly points in that direction see Bulkley b.
A final contribution of religious studies to dream research involves the appropriate methodological tools to use in studying dreams. Dreams are, and always have been, a powerful source of religious experience and insight. Phenominologically speaking, it is a plain fact that dreams do at times speak directly and powerfully to people's basic spiritual concerns.
Many modern dream researchers have, to their credit, recognized this fact. But these researchers, who generally come from fields like depth psychology, cognitive psychology, and neurology, have no always had the conceptual resources needed to examine adequately the spiritual dimensions of dreams. Here is where religious studies must be brought into the dialogue, for the religious studies can provide the vocabularies, methods, and models we need to understand fully this important aspect of human experience.
In the rapprochement of religious studies and dreams, a key methodological issue is the distinction between "real" dreams and dreams recorded in myths, epics, and other sacred texts.
We must begin by attempting to clarify the relationship between dreams and myths. Why do we think there is a connection between dreams and myths at all? There are several good reasons. First of all, Freud himself suggested the connection Freud , Second, many traditional cultures have suggested the connection, in both directions: shamans and holy men claim to have had dreams which then become the substance of myths; people who wish to have significant dreams "incubate" them in temples and shrines where myths are told; and people incorporate into their dreams many of the cultural symbols that they have learned from myths.
Third, we ourselves can see direct connections between certain "surreal" phenomena that occur in myths and in dream but not, usually, in other cultural expressions: distortions of time and space, people having magical powers, fantastic transformations e. On a continuum of narrative forms, myth mediates between the entirely personal and solipsistic, of which the dream is the quintessential example, and the entirely general and abstract, of which a logical syllogism is the quintessential example.
Dreams are private; a myth is a dream that has gone public. People possess myths, but dreams possess people. These dreams [recorded in the Hindu classic The Yogavasistha] are not even invented dreams one is familiar with from literature and which stand midway between real dreams and imaginative creations.
Invented dreams in literature can indeed be interpreted by paying very close attention to their context, to the dreamer's feelings and thoughts at waking and to the associations of the audience of the analyst in place of the missing associations of the dreamer, as in analytical practice. All these techniques which succeed in interpreting dreams in literature, at least to the analyst's satisfaction, simply do not succeed with the Indian dreams. From the psychological viewpoint, they are not dreams but imaginative creations, conceits in the service of the metaphysical narrative.
O'Flaherty , In the more technical psychoanalytical sense, the myth cannot have latent content on a personal level; only the people who respond to the myth have, each his or her own, latent meanings for the myth, in the strict sense of the term. Leijssen, M. H5: Dromen en verbeeldingskracht. In: M. Leijssen, Tijd voor de ziel. Tielt: Lannoo, Pameijer, J.
Nachtzich t. Over het spirituele in onze dromen. Tilburg: Sigma Press Stroeken, H. H9 Dromen in de bijbel en de Griekse oudheid; gedeelte in H11 een hoofdstuk over 'specifieke dromen': Religieuze dromen. In: H. Dromen brein en betekenis. Meppel: Boom, ; Stufkens, H. Spiritualiteit werkt in dromen. Een reisgids voor je leven. Barbara Koning Dreampilgrims. Dreams and Religions.
Resources considering dreams and religions, with a broad and general scope or discussing more than one religious or spiritual tradition Adams, K. London: Canterbury Press book information on website of publisher Aswegan, A. Awakening the Dreamer. Boston: Beacon Press Bulkeley, K. The Religious Function of the Psyche.