The Primitive Hut scientically and philosophically. Adolf Loos Francesco Milizia 2. John Ruskin To show how the idea of the primitive hut became a Joseph Rykwert vehicle for architectural theories from the fteenth century on.
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Gottfried Semper To suggest that the primitive hut will retain its va- Leon Vaudoyer lidity as a reminder of the original and therefore es- Viollet-le-Duc sential meaning of all building for people: that is, of architecture Vitruvius Frank Lloyd Wright 3 Types of primitive huts The primitive hut has been theorised to have dierent 5 See also forms: Architectural theory 1.
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Primitive Original Matters In Architecture
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Her next project with Flora Samuel is a book entitled Facades. She has a particular interest in the narratives implicit within the construction of buildings and was one of the original initiators of the Primitive conference from which this book has evolved. An illustration of the primitive hut by Charles Dominique Eisen was the frontispiece for the second edition of Laugier's Essay on Architecture The frontispiece was arguably one of the most famous images in the history of architecture, it helped to make the essay more accessible and consequently it was more widely received by the public.
The message the illustration was suggesting was clear; that the essay would suggest a new direction or a new order for architecture. In the image a young woman who personifies architecture draws the attention of an angelic child towards the primitive hut.
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Architecture is pointing to a new structural clarity found in nature, rather than the ironic ruins of the past. The Essay on Architecture provides a story of man in his 'primitive' state to explain how the creation of the "primitive man's" house is created instinctively based on man's need to shelter himself from nature.
Laugier believed that the model of the primitive man's hut provided the ideal principles for architecture or any structure. It was from this perspective that Laugier formed his general principles of architecture where he outlined the standard form of architecture and what he believed was fundamental to all architecture. To Laugier, the general principles of architecture were found in what was natural, intrinsic and part of natural processes.
Laugier's Essay on Architecture is divided into six chapters that focus on the different constituencies and considerations of architecture. It methodically identifies the key components of a building, describes their fundamental importance and how they should be approached.
In Chapter 1: "The General Principles of Architecture", Laugier divides and analyses buildings into five main "articles": the column , entablature , pediment , the different storeys of architecture, the windows and doors. In Article 1, for example, Laugier makes four general rules for the construction of columns, one of them being that the column "must be strictly perpendicular, because being intended to support the whole load, perfect verticality gives it its greatest strength.
Laugier emphasised the point that nature provides the rules for architecture. Laugier used the frontispiece to illustrate that typically architecture needs only three main elements, the free-standing columns, horizontal beams entablature , and a simple pediment the triangular end of a pitched roof.
The Primitive Hut
Laugier also noted that the deviation or misuse of the principles lead to inherent faults in typical buildings and in architectural practice. In particular he recognised logical faults, issues such as proportion and unintelligent design. Instead, advocating that "by approaching the simplicity of the model, fundamental mistakes are avoided and true perfection achieved". The idea also claims that Ancient Greek temples owed their form to the earliest habitations erected by man. In the primitive hut, the horizontal beam was supported by tree trunks planted upright in the ground and the roof was sloped to shed rainwater.
This was an extension of the primitive hut concept and the inspiration behind the basic Doric order. The essay advocates that architecture approach perfection through the search for absolute beauty, specifically by returning to the hypothetical original hut as a model for building. The Primitive Hut made an important contribution to the theory of architecture.