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Instead these can be included as a footnote to the first page together with a reference reference 1 to the preceding part. When the preceding part has been submitted to a Royal Society of Chemistry journal but is not yet published, the paper reference number should be given. For single-blind peer review, please follow the instructions below regarding author names. For double-blind peer review, please follow the instructions here.

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Full names for all the authors of an article should be given. To give due acknowledgement to all workers contributing to the work, those who have contributed significantly to the research should be listed as co-authors. Authors who contributed equally can be noted with a Footnote and referenced with a symbol. On submission of the manuscript, the corresponding author attests to the fact that those named as co-authors have agreed to its submission for publication and accepts the responsibility for having properly included all and only co- authors. If there are more than 10 co-authors on the manuscript, the corresponding author should provide a statement to specify the contribution of each co-author.

The corresponding author signs a copyright licence on behalf of all the authors. This entry should include a colour image no larger than 8 cm wide x 4 cm high , and words of text that highlight the novel aspects of your work. Graphics should be as clear as possible; simple schematic diagrams or reaction schemes are preferred to ORTEP- style crystal structure depictions and complicated graphs, for example. The graphic used in the table of contents entry need not necessarily appear in the article itself.

Authors should bear in mind the final size of any lettering on the graphic. For examples, please see the online version of the journal. Every paper must be accompanied by a summary words setting out briefly and clearly the main objects and results of the work; it should give the reader a clear idea of what has been achieved.

The summary should be essentially independent of the main text; however, names, partial names or linear formulae of compounds may be accompanied by the numbers referring to the corresponding displayed formulae in the body of the text. Please bear in mind that readers increasingly use search engines to find literature; recognisable, searchable terms and key words should be included in the abstract to enable readers to more effectively find your paper.

The abstract should aim to address the following questions. Authors must provide an 'environmental significance statement' words or less that states how the work enhances or elucidates our understanding of nanomaterial interactions with natural systems that affect environmental or human health. It should aim to answer the following five questions. This statement will be seen by the reviewers and will help ascertain the relevance of the article for a broad but technical audience, and authors should use it to show that they have given serious consideration to the positive or negative effects of nanomaterials on either humans or the environment.

Please note that papers cannot be peer-reviewed without this statement. This should give clearly and briefly, with relevant references, both the nature of the problem under investigation and its background. Standard techniques and methods used throughout the work should be stated at the beginning of the section. Apparatus should be described only if it is non-standard; commercially available instruments are referred to by their stock numbers for example, Perkin-Elmer or Varian HA spectrometers. The accuracy of primary measurements should be stated. In general there is no need to report unsuccessful experiments.

Authors are encouraged to make use of electronic supplementary information ESI for lengthy synthetic sections. Any unusual hazards inherent in the use of chemicals, procedures or equipment in the investigation should be clearly identified. In cases where a study involves the use of live animals or human subjects, the author should include a statement that all experiments were performed in compliance with the relevant laws and institutional guidelines, and also state the institutional committee s that have approved the experiments.

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They should also include a statement that informed consent was obtained for any experimentation with human subjects. Referees may be asked to comment specifically on any cases in which concerns arise. It is usual for the results to be presented first, followed by a discussion of their significance. Only strictly relevant results should be presented and figures, tables, and equations should be used for purposes of clarity and brevity. The use of flow diagrams and reaction schemes is encouraged. Data must not be reproduced in more than one form - for example, in both figures and tables, without good reason.

This is for interpretation and to highlight the novelty and significance of the work. Authors are encouraged to discuss the real world relevance of the work reported and how it impacts on the environment. The conclusions should not summarise information already present in the text or abstract.

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Contributors other than co-authors may be acknowledged in a separate paragraph at the end of the paper; acknowledgements should be as brief as possible. All sources of funding should be declared. These should be listed at the end of the manuscript in numerical order. Endnote style files. Bibliographic reference to the source of statements in the text is made by use of superior numerals at the appropriate place for example, Wittig3. The reference numbers should be cited in the correct sequence through the text including those in tables and figure captions, numbered according to where the table or figure is designated to appear.

Please do not use Harvard style for references.

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The references themselves are given at the end of the final printed text along with any notes. This does not prevent some, or all, of the names being mentioned at their first citation in the cursive text; initials are not necessary in the text.

Notes or footnotes may be used to present material that, if included in the body of the text, would disrupt the flow of the argument but which is, nevertheless, of importance in qualifying or amplifying the textual material. Notes should be numbered using the same numbering system as the bibliographic references.

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Froment, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2nd edn. Patents Br. US Pat. Reports and bulletins, etc R. Allen, D. Smith and J. Material presented at meetings H. Reference to unpublished material For material presented at a meeting, congress or before a Society, etc. Reference to unpublished work should not be made without the permission of those by whom the work was performed.

Online resources including databases Please note the most important information to include is the URL and the data accessed. Artwork should be submitted at its final size so that reduction is not required. The appearance of graphics is the responsibility of the author. Authors who wish to have their artwork featured on a journal cover should contact the editorial office of the journal to which the article is being submitted.

A contribution to the additional production costs will be requested. Use of such artwork is at the editor's discretion; the editor's decision is final. Examples of previous journal covers can be viewed via the journal homepage. The journal's electronic supplementary information ESI service is a free facility that enables authors to enhance and increase the impact of their articles. Authors are encouraged to make the most of the benefits of publishing supplementary information in electronic form. Such data can take full advantage of the electronic medium, allowing use of 3D molecular models and movies.

Authors can also improve the readability of their articles by placing appropriate material, such as repetitive experimental details and bulky data, as ESI. All information published as ESI is also fully archived.

When preparing their ESI data files, authors should keep in mind the following points. Publishing staff will convert Word files to PDF before publication, as this format can be accessed easily and reliably on most computing platforms using the freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader. If other formats are submitted they will also usually be converted to PDF files prior to publication. We welcome submission of multimedia files including videos and animations alongside articles for publication. Videos are an excellent medium to present elements of your work that can be difficult to communicate only in words.

Please note that any videos of general interest are shared with the wider community via the RSC Journals YouTube channel. Please notify the editorial team if you prefer for your video s not to be uploaded to YouTube. Also please see the section on submitting multimedia files. Please consider the use of lower specifications for all these points if the material can still be represented clearly.

If your video is very short that is, several seconds long then it is recommended that you loop it and repeat a few times to provide a more detailed view.